Lawrence Lessig has long crusaded against the influence of money in politics. But in a new book, the Roy L. Furman Professor of Law and Leadership at Harvard Law School casts his sights on the broader topic of reinvigorating democracy. In “They Don’t Represent Us: Reclaiming Our Democracy,” Lessig argues that the nation’s political system is in a state of dysfunction, mired in partisanship and dominated by special interests. The Gazette recently spoke to Lessig about how it got this way and how he believes it can be fixed.Q&ALawrence LessigGAZETTE: What are some of the most obvious signs that our representative government is not all that representative?LESSIG: Once you see this unrepresentativeness in one place you see it every place. Gerrymandering is pretty obvious to people in its unrepresentativeness. The Electoral College through its winner-take-all system is obviously unrepresentative. The way votes get suppressed by states attempting to entrench the party in power is obviously unrepresentative. The U.S. Senate is obviously unrepresentative. And most fundamentally and most grotesquely, the way we fund campaigns is obviously unrepresentative. Each of these dimensions produces an inherently, unavoidably unrepresentative representative democracy, and that seems to be the core problem that we must find a way to reform.GAZETTE: You argue that the problem is not that our political system benefits the rich but that it benefits no one. How so?LESSIG: I don’t mean to suggest that it doesn’t benefit the rich. It’s just that it’s not just benefiting the rich. The rich benefit obviously because of their influence in the funding of campaigns. It’s only the rich who fund campaigns in any significant way, and it’s clearly the rich whom representatives bend over backward to make happy in their behavior as representatives. But my point is that when you think the way each of the dimensions of unrepresentativeness has its effect, it’s not always benefiting the rich. So when the Republican Party suppresses the votes of Democrats, primarily African Americans in states like Georgia, it’s not that that’s necessarily benefiting the rich in Georgia. It’s benefiting the Republicans in Georgia. Or with gerrymandering, the people it’s benefiting are the extremists. The extremist Democrats and the extremist Republicans are not necessarily the rich Democrats or the rich Republicans. My point is that we have to recognize that this is not just a conspiracy of the rich. If it were a conspiracy of the rich, it might be better because at least they’d have a plan. But the problem we have now is that we have a government that’s following no plan, that has no coherent policy that it’s advancing, which means it’s a government that accomplishes nothing about fundamentally important problems that it needs to be addressing.GAZETTE: You say the most destructive aspect of our reliance on money in politics is not how it shapes campaigns but how it influences our representatives.LESSIG: That’s a critical point because it’s a clue to why Congress, even under the jurisprudence of this Supreme Court, should have the power to address the problem. The real distortion in our political system comes through the constant influence that money has on the behavior of the representatives. The representatives know that if you vote one way or another you’re going to either [attract] or repel substantial amounts of money to their campaigns, and so they live in this constant shadow of the influence of these funders. You don’t have to be a Ph.D. in psychology to recognize that constantly sucking up to the richest people distorts the view of these representatives about what they need to accomplish.GAZETTE: Cable TV, the internet, and social media have been seen often as democratizing forces in modern society. Your book suggests otherwise in its effect on our politics.LESSIG: Yes. Twenty years ago with the birth of the internet’s influence in popular culture, most of us thought if you can just give people information the world will be a better place. It turns out it doesn’t quite work that way. If you give people information in a fragmented media environment where the incentives of the provider of that information are to polarize and to make more radical the consumers of that information, what that produces is a political culture less able to deliberate about matters of public import. So what the internet has done in the context of political speech is to make us less able as a democracy to work through the hard problems that we have as a democracy, even if it’s given us much better cable TV entertainment.GAZETTE: Is advertising at the core of this trouble?LESSIG: I really sometimes feel I’ve become such a radical on this issue. But I think it’s important to have a radical voice on this issue. Increasingly, we just find ourselves controlled or directed or invaded by this constant drumbeat of advertising. If it were just a distraction you might say, “We have to learn to live with this.” But when you begin to see that the business model of advertising is to make us stupid, to make us polarized, when you realize that their business depends on us being a less-effective democracy, we have to step back and ask, “Why do we allow this? Why do we allow an influence more corrupting than the Russians into the center of our democracy?” That’s what we’ve done by allowing such an important chunk of political speech to be directed and controlled by businesses that depend upon this dynamic.GAZETTE: But your book does not let people off the hook. Are we part of the problem?LESSIG: In one sense, I want people to realize just how bad we have become at wrestling with issues of public import. But on the other it’s obvious that we wouldn’t be very good at these issues given we live in this fragmented, polarized media environment. Now some people look at that fact and they say that’s why we need to get rid of democracy, or reduce democracy, because the people are not up to the job. But that’s not my reaction. My reaction to it is to say we need to find ways to create environments of democracy that are edifying and produce a result which “we the people” would be proud of, that give us a chance to deliberate and reflect on the questions democracy demands we answer and give answers that are sensible. And research suggests that in fact these environments exist.GAZETTE: So how can we can begin to turn things around?LESSIG: The most obvious, and conceptually the simplest thing we can do is to fix our government, the corrupting influences of unrepresentativeness inside our government. We could deal with most of the problems that I describe in my book — money in politics, gerrymandering, suppression of the vote, maybe even the Electoral College — through simple changes in the statutes that govern our democracy. With respect to us, it’s a harder problem because we’re not going to ban advertising — at least not unless we change the First Amendment — and we’re not going to get people to spend an hour every month studying issues of national import. I think the answer there is to begin to be more realistic about what’s possible for people inside of this democracy and to begin to constrain spaces where we expect “we the people” to have a deliberative role in government decisions, while building these infrastructures for something better. Having more inclusive representative bodies of ordinary people participating in decisions about public matters will begin to convince us of an alternative way to represent the people inside of our democracy.GAZETTE: Are changes to the Constitution also essential?LESSIG: Once statutory changes are made, I think they need to be codified or made permanent in the Constitution. But the essence of the constitutional reform is to guarantee that we produce a representative democracy, to give the power to Congress to create those conditions of representativeness, and to make sure that we have institutions, whether the courts or other institutions, that can force the politicians to create those conditions.GAZETTE: Do you see any encouraging signs the American public is motivated to fight for these kinds of reforms?LESSIG: Absolutely. Twenty-eighteen saw more citizen-led reform measures passed in states across the country than at any point in American history. A wide range of reforms, from gerrymandering reforms to ranked-choice voting to anticorruption measures to transparency measures to the voter disenfranchisement initiative in Florida, all of them driving for the idea of reforming our corrupted democracy. I think from the grass roots up there’s more understanding and energy than ever before in our history. The challenge is just how to translate that into a national movement that can actually have some effect. I’m hopeful. I’m not yet optimistic.GAZETTE: You have long championed the need for reforming our electoral system. What convinced you a larger strategy was needed to fix our democracy?LESSIG: As I wrote more extensively about campaign finance and then looked at the other silos of reform efforts, it became clear to me that there was a common thread linking them all. The reform community is very small and very divided: You have money in politics people; you have gerrymandering people; you have voter-suppression people; you have Electoral College people. And each of these people sometimes act as if their reform is the silver bullet. What was clear to me is that none of these silver bullets would solve the problem. But more fundamentally, all were pointing to a common problem, and if we could just agree that the common problem is unrepresentativeness or unequal political power among our citizens, then we might be able to build a big enough movement to actually achieve political equality in each of these dimensions. It’s a moral fight because at its core it is a fight about whether citizens have equal political rights within their democracy.Interview was edited for length and clarity.
Colombian authorities seized a total of 25 kilos of marijuana from soldiers that arrived in Tolemaida (central Colombia) at a military fort for a break, the Army said in a statement on December 13. According to the communiqué, intelligence reports indicated that military service members from Mobile Brigade 17, which arrived in Tolemaida on December 12 coming from the Cauca department (southeast), “were apparently carrying hallucinogens.” A verification procedure led authorities to seize “25 kilos of marijuana in several packages,” added the report. According to the Colombian Army, Military Commands were ordered to move forward with “investigations, to determine the responsible parties of this embarrassing situation, and then penalize them accordingly.” Cauca, a region with mainly indigenous population, is one of the most troubled areas in the Andean country, with a significant FARC presence and extensive coca and poppy crops (raw material for the development of cocaine and heroin), as well as marijuana. By Dialogo December 17, 2012
This is the only way to produce true change and avoid a greater environmental catastrophe, Lt. Col. Luque said. “The real losers of this phenomenon are Colombia’s future generations.” “Corruption is the backbone of illegal mining,” Lt. Col. Luque said, “and unless we stop it, we won’t have a chance at success.” Security forces destroyed five backhoe loaders worth nearly $800,000 (about $2.4 billion pesos) that allegedly belonged to the ELN and halted all illegal mining activities in a 360-hectare area. Repairing the environmental damage caused by the illegal mining operation will cost almost $100 billion pesos (approximately $30 million), according to the Army. This was the first coordinated effort of the Army’s Special Brigade against Illegal Mining, an elite unit that security authorities formed in October. The Brigade’s mission is to battle the proliferation of illicit gold, coal, emerald, and gravel mines. These illicit operations have replaced drug trafficking as the main source of income for many organized crime groups. The underground gold mines in Buriticá, in the department of Antioquia, are good examples. Canadian company Continental Gold has the only mining permit to operate in the area. Legal miners working for the company extract around 6,000 ounces of gold annually. Meanwhile, illegal miners have dug nearly 900 kilometers of tunnels in the mountain under precarious conditions and have extracted about 60,000 ounces of gold annually, according to Continental Gold records corroborated by the Special Brigade against Illegal Mining. Those engaging in illegal mining are motivated by money. An illegal miner can earn more than $8 million pesos (approximately $2,500) a month, more than 10 times the monthly minimum wage, and several times more than they could earn as a legal miner or even as an illegal coca producer. Currently, a kilogram of coca – the main ingredient used to make cocaine – can be sold in Bogotá for about $4.5 million pesos (approximately $1,500), while a kilogram of gold can reach prices of up to $90 million pesos (about $30,000), according to Army intelligence. Environmental damage By Dialogo February 25, 2016 Illegal mining has grown exponentially in Colombia in recent years, according to Colombian Military Intelligence. Organized crime groups have increased their income from such enterprises, according to Lt. Col. Luque, and the rising price of gold and the devaluation of the Colombian peso have increased their monetary yield. A growing problem Criminal organizations throughout the country have tried to exploit these trends. Some, for example, have extorted miners who are not affiliated with organized crime, providing them with equipment and forcing them to extract precious metals, such as gold and gems, including emeralds. In some instances, organized crime groups directly run illegal mining operations. For example, in December, National Police agents captured 14 alleged members of the Clan Úsuga organized crime group suspected of running an illegal mining operation in the Urabá Gulf region, near Colombia’s border with Panama. Current numbers are not available, but according to the most recent mining census released in 2011 by the Ministry of Energy and Mines, at least 63 percent of all mines in Colombia operate illegally. The census also stated that when it comes to gold mines, that figure rises to 90.9 percent, meaning that about one out of every 10 gold mines in the country is paying taxes and operating under the minimum legal requirements dictated by the Ministry of Energy and Mines. The Special Brigade against Illegal Mining is starting an investigation into the importers of mining materials and the entities in charge of overseeing them. It is also preparing new, interagency-coordinated operations that aim to destroy mining equipment, offer financial options for miners, and establish a sustained Military presence that prevents illegal groups from returning. Criminal organizations like the ELN, the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, Clan Úsuga, and other so-called BACRIMs (criminal groups) all charge a fee for every ounce mined in their territories, and then an extra fee for any ounce that leaves or for any machinery or any materials that come in or out. Therefore, they can earn around $6 billion pesos (approximately $2 million) a month from a mining complex like the one near the San Bingo River in Cauca – all of it without their men having to mine a single gram of gold. Colombian National Army Troops, police officers, and Attorney General’s Office agents dismantled a major illegal mining operation run by the National Liberation Army (ELN) along the San Bingo River, a once fast-flowing waterway in the jungles of the southwestern department of Cauca. The environmental damage caused by illegal mining is also growing exponentially, as the San Bingo River clearly demonstrates. A recent report by the country’s Office of the Ombudsman carried out in six departments reveals that Colombia is losing almost 16,700 hectares of forests to illegal mining every year, and wasting more than 13 million cubic meters of water, the total used on average each year by more than 4,500 U.S. citizens. And that does not take into account the water that is poisoned by the mercury used in the gold mines next to river beds, according to Col. Luque. The reasons are clear: 3.4 kilograms of imported mercury are sold for $7 million pesos (about $2,300), while a kilogram in the black market can be sold for about $12 million pesos (approximately $4,000). As for heavy machinery, it is often illegally insured in such a way that criminals are often repaid for the backhoe loaders and other equipment that are destroyed as part of any Police and Army operations, according to an investigation by the Special Brigade against Illegal Mining. “Drug trafficking is now a part of history,” said Lieutenant Colonel Carlos Eduardo Luque of the Special Brigade against Illegal Mining. “It’s not as it used to be before. Today, the money is in illegal mining.” This specific illegal activity can all be traced to corruption by some business people, according to Lt. Col. Luque. Colombia has strict laws regulating the import and distribution of the main elements required for large-scale underground or river mining, such as mercury, explosives, and heavy machinery. Nevertheless, criminals procure these elements by corrupting key people in the industries that can legally acquire them.
Sign up for our COVID-19 newsletter to stay up-to-date on the latest coronavirus news throughout New York Luis AlomarFederal authorities are asking for the public to be on the lookout for an armed suspect who may be hiding on eastern Long Island after allegedly holding up banks in three states.Luis Alomar is wanted on a federal arrest warrant for allegedly robbing banks in Delaware, New York and New Jersey, according to the FBI. He speaks Spanish and has ties to the Mastic-Shirley area.“Alomar is alleged to have made verbal threats to bank tellers, telling them he would shoot them if they said anything,” the agency said in a statement.In most cases, he allegedly handed a demand note to the teller indicating he was carrying a weapon. In some cases, a weapon was displayed. He normally demands large bills.Alomar also has ties to southern Florida, specifically Palm Beach County, Kissimmee and Osceola County. He should be considered armed and dangerous.The 37-year-old suspect is described as 5-feet, 4-inches tall, 145 pounds, with black hair and brown eyes. He has a large mole on his right forehead, as well as tattoos on right arm and right leg.He also uses the aliases Arturo Alomar, Luis Arturo, David Diaz, David Gonzalez, Louis Alomar and Luis Castillo.Anyone with information is asked to call the New York FBI at 212-384-1000. Tipsters may remain anonymous.
25SHARESShareShareSharePrintMailGooglePinterestDiggRedditStumbleuponDeliciousBufferTumblr,Derek San Filippo Derek is a freelance writer who spends his off time either working with his rescue animals or writing children’s books. He lives in San Diego with his beautiful wife … Web: www.financialfeed.com Details Divorce is an ugly thing. Even when it’s nice, it’s still ugly. Obviously, it has an effect on finances. Either you and your spouse had jobs, in which case your income is about to be cut down, or you were relying on your spouse’s income, in which case your income is being eliminated.So, the divorce looks like it’s happening. What should you do? How should you move forward? This article will go over some quick tips on how to start preparing yourself for this long and difficult road.File a legal separationA legal separation bifurcates assets between a couple. This means your spouse’s financial activity no longer affects you. This is valuable, especially if you need to rebuild credit. Assuming your spouse has poor credit with a lot of debt, that will affect your score. The separation protects you from these headaches. Please note that if you and your spouse are both named on a credit card, that card remains in both your names regardless of the separation and will affect your credit. So, make sure you are not a part of any joint credit that you don’t want to keep.Be conservative with your moneyAs stated before, when it appears the divorce is happening, your financial situation is heading towards a huge shift, especially if there’s been a legal separation. You’ll need to start spending far less than you normally would because the amount of money in your account is about to dip. This is when budgeting becomes a huge thing. Take a look at your monthly expenses and try to figure out what your individual costs will be. You might have to run lean, but you’ll be in a better financial situation if you do.Leave the big decisions to the courtAll this means is don’t make any big changes to any retirement account, beneficiaries, etc. That stuff gets settled in the court with the judge. Making preemptive changes could be a big mistake and potentially end up costing you.No one likes divorce. Please be safe if this is the path you choose. And of course, seek legal advice from a professional.
“The proposals would entail new powers for EIOPA to set the policy priorities of national supervisory authorities, to review their supervisory activities and to obtain information directly from pension funds,” said PensionsEurope.National pension supervisors should have the freedom to decide their own priorities based on relevant national trends and not adhere to EIOPA’s strategic supervisory plan, according to PensionsEurope. European pension funds are worried that levying the industry to fund the European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority (EIOPA) would lead to less oversight of the authority from EU institutions and member states, according to PensionsEurope.Commenting on the European Commission’s review of EIOPA and the other European supervisory authorities (ESAs), the association said pension funds feared this might happen if EIOPA’s budget were funded to a lesser degree by national and EU contributions.The Commission has proposed that EIOPA be given the power to raise a levy on pension schemes. PensionsEurope said funds were not directly supervised by the ESAs and therefore opposed industry fees.It said pension funds were also concerned that proposed new powers for EIOPA would be used by the authority “to urge national supervisors to adopt its view of how pension funds should be regulated”. The European Commission has proposed giving more powers to EIOPAOne of the main thrusts of the Commission’s proposals for the ESA system is to empower the European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA), which would be entrusted with direct supervisory power in certain financial sectors. The Commission has spoken of establishing “a single capital markets supervisor”.PensionsEurope said it supported the objective of further convergence of capital markets supervision, and that ESMA should play a role in “ensuring that the harmonised rulebook is applied consistently across the EU”.It made sense to boost ESMA’s powers vis-à-vis third country firms, “so that European institutional investors can be confident that they too behave prudently,” added the association.However, increased powers for ESMA should be accompanied by “adequate representation” of pension funds and their dedicated asset managers in its stakeholder groups, it said, and ESMA would need to strengthen its engagement with stakeholders.The proposed strengthening of mandates for ESA stakeholder groups was welcome, said PensionsEurope, although this should not be a reason to change the composition of the groups. The process for selecting members of the stakeholder groups should be transferred to the Commission, it said.PensionsEurope expressed concern about underrepresentation of pensions expertise at EIOPA, in particular given that its pensions mandate would expand under the Commission’s proposal for pan-European personal pension products. The regulation on EIOPA should therefore require the Commission “to consider the expertise and competences of the executive board when shortlisting candidates”, said PensionsEurope.The European Systemic Risk Board (ESRB) should avoid having a bank-bias in its approach to other financial sectors, with pension funds fearing being unduly categorised as of systemic importance to financial stability, the organisation added.The Commission has proposed that the president of the European Central Bank chair the ESRB on a permanent basis.The proposals are now with the European Parliament and the Council.
Miami-based cruise major Royal Caribbean Cruises closed the quarter ended June 30, 2019, with record second-quarter earnings.US GAAP net income for the quarter was USD 472.8 million, compared to USD 466.3 million posted in Q2 2018.In addition, adjusted net income stood at USD 532.7 million in the second quarter of 2019, against USD 482.2 million seen in the corresponding three-month period a year earlier.As explained, the improvement over last year was mainly driven by increased revenue from Royal Caribbean’s global brands. “We are elated to see our brands executing so effectively, keeping our business in an exceptionally strong position,” Richard D. Fain, chairman and CEO, pointed out.The overall positive results were achieved despite the United States’ decision to ban cruise ships from docking in Cuba, preventing group tours and cruise ship stops to the island nation.“Better demand for onboard experiences as well as strong close-in demand for our core products fully offset the impact from the travel restrictions to Cuba which equated to 30 basis points for the quarter,” according to the company.Due to an increase in costs related to the travel restrictions to Cuba, current fuel pricing, as well as other factors, Royal Caribbean estimates 2019 adjusted EPS to be in the range of USD 9.55 to USD 9.65 per share.“The company’s booked position for the remainder of 2019 continues to set new records with all core products in line or ahead of the company’s previous expectations,” Jason T. Liberty, executive vice president and CFO, commented. “While it is too early to provide detailed color on 2020, we are delighted that bookings are already off to a very strong start.”Royal Caribbean Cruises controls and operates four brands including Royal Caribbean International, Celebrity Cruises, Azamara and Silversea Cruises. It is also a 50% joint venture owner of the German brand TUI Cruises and a 49% shareholder in the Spanish brand Pullmantur Cruceros. Together, these brands operate a combined total of 63 ships with an additional 13 on order as of June 30, 2019.
Stuff co.nz 3 March 2015Disabled people could be coerced to commit suicide if a voluntary euthanasia bill is passed, a disability rights group says.Not Dead Yet convenor Wendi Wicks said there could never be adequate protections for disabled people under voluntary euthanasia legislation.“There are endless ways of telling disabled people time and time again that their life has no value.”Not Dead Yet’s launch coincides with a speaking tour by world expert on medically assisted suicide, Rob Jonquiere.The Dutch doctor is half-way through his two-week tour and said he agreed to help End of Life New Zealand raise the issue by talking about medically-assisted euthanasia legislation in his country.During the tour Jonquiere will deliver 14 public lectures around the country and speak to health professionals.In the Netherlands patients can ask their doctor to assist them in ending their lives if they are experiencing “intolerable and hopeless suffering”, Jonquiere said.http://www.stuff.co.nz/national/health/66904738/disability-rights-group-concerned-over-voluntary-euthanasia
Ronaldo is now only one goal off pushing the Brazilian, Romario, down to third place while also only being 33 goals off equalling Pele. Meanwhile, the two next to him in the top three have a lot of their goals in weaker leagues.Romario’s stats are near-impossible to thoroughly find with 364 goals to his name in league competitions, with the majority of his goals coming in either the Netherlands or Brazil throughout the 1980s and 1990s. Read Also: Sevilla star voted best La Liga signing for 2019-20 campaignPele is rather infamously known for him scoring over 1,000 goals (albeit a lot in exhibitions and friendlies), and like Romario had a good majority of his goals, or worse, the NASL for the New York Cosmos.Ronaldo being as high as he is while having 729 of his 734 goals being scored for Manchester United, Real Madrid, Juventus, and the Portugal National Team is an incredible feat.FacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmail分享 The 35-year-old now sees himself ahead of some of the footballing greats with players such as Eusebio and Ferenc Puskas not being able to crack the top five which is as follows:T9. Arthur Friedenreich – 554 goalsT9. Ferenc Deak – 554 goals8. Eusebio – 615 goals7. Josef Bican – 636 goals6. Ferenc Puskas – 706 goals5. Lionel Messi – 716 goals4. Gerd Muller – 720 goalsT2. Romario – 734 goalsT2. Cristiano Ronaldo – 734 goals1. Pele – 767 goals Promoted Content7 Reasons It’s Better To Be A VeganBest & Worst Celebrity Endorsed Games Ever MadeBirds Enjoy Living In A Gallery Space Created For Them7 Universities In The World Where Education Costs Too MuchHere Are The Top 10 Tiniest Mobile Phones On The Planet!Who Is The Most Powerful Woman On Earth?Can Playing Too Many Video Games Hurt Your Body?20 Celebs With Bizarre Hidden Talents And Skills10 Risky Jobs Some Women DoPlaying Games For Hours Can Do This To Your BodyMind-Bending Technology That Was Predicted Before It Appeared6 Great Ancient Mysteries That Make China Worth Visiting Loading… Cristiano Ronaldo has now moved up to second place in the most official goals ever scored after his brace in Juventus’ recent 2-1 win over Lazio. Ronaldo now sees himself on 734 goals.The Portuguese forward recently broke three records for his incredible goal-scoring prowess in Italy. Becoming Juventus’ first player to score 30+ goals in one season since the 1950s, as well as becoming the fastest to 50 goals in Serie A, making the record in only 61 games.It doesn’t stop there either with him becoming the first-ever player to have over 50 goals in Serie A, La Liga, and the English Premier League.
MARSHALLTOWN, Iowa – The inaugural Dale DeFrance Memorial will be Thursday, May 10, with IMCA Late Models racing for $1,500 to win and a top prize of $1,000 at stake for IMCA Modifieds.The 44-lap Late Model feature pays $200 to start while the 25-lap Modified main event pays $140 to start, $100 tow and is a qualifier for the Fast Shafts All-Star Invitational ballot.IMCA Sunoco Stock Car and Karl Chevrolet Northern SportMod features both pay $500 to win and $100 to start while IMCA Sunoco Hobby Stocks run for $300 to win and $100 to start.Total purse for the night is $20,000 with another $3,000-plus in contingencies to be given.IMCA Speedway Motors Weekly Racing National, regional, Iowa State and track points will be awarded at the draw/redraw show. There will be no racing at Marshalltown on Friday, May 11.Pit gates open at 4:30 p.m. and the grandstand opens at 5 p.m. Hot laps are at 7 p.m. with racing to follow.Grandstand admission is $12 for adults, $10 for seniors and free for kids ages 10 and under. Pit passes are $25.